HEALTH 1921-1945, PART 5

Our review of Health Care Organizations in Bulgaria is towards its end. We shall briefly make a synopsis of the period 1921-1945 before continuing the subject with the reforms following the end of WWII.

The fundamentals of legislation and administration in Bulgaria during the before mentioned period was elaborated at the League of Nations - an international organization set up in 1919 to preserve peace and settle disputes by arbitration. The constitution of the League /"Covenant"/ was adopted by the Paris Peace Conference in April 1919 and written into each of the peace treaties. The League's headquarters were in Geneva but its first secretary-general during the period 1919-32 was the British diplomat, Sir Eric Drummond /1876-1951/. During the Second World War the League maintained its non-political functions. Its remaining responsibilities were handed over to the United Nations in April 1946.

Now, let us make a survey of the General Administration of Bulgaria. The Government consists of the Head of the State, the representatives of the people and the Cabinet. The Head of the State is the King /"Tsar"/. The representatives of the people, who are elected every four years, each deputy representing 20 000 inhabitants, constitute the National Assembly /"Sobranje"/. The cabinet is composed of ten ministers. Bulgaria is divided into 16 provinces, 82 districts and 2391 communes, of which 82 are urban and 2299 rural, the total number of the settlements being 5652. Each province is administered by a prefect, appointed by the Minister of the Interior and assisted by a provincial council and provincial committee. The districts are administered by sub-prefects. At the head of each commune is a major, who is assisted by one or more deputies elected by the municipal council; the council is elected by the inhabitants. Questions of interest to the municipality may be submitted to a referendum at the demand of at least one-sixth of the electors. Sofia possesses a special communal organization.

The legislative power is in the hands of the Crown and the National Assembly. The Government generally draws up laws and takes the initiative in matter of reform. Bills are laid before the National Assembly by the minister of the department responsible for their promulgation. Private members may also introduce bills, which must, however, have been signed by a quarter of the representatives in the National Assembly. The legislative bodies of the communes are the communal boards. These boards must not, however, issue regulations which are at variance with the national laws. The executive power is in the hands of the Crown, the ministers and the Cabinet. Ministers issue executive regulations under the laws passed by the National Assembly; these regulations must be sanctioned by royal decree. Ministers cannot promulgate new laws or amend, add to, or replace existing ones. In exceptional circumstances, and subject to a decision by the Cabinet, the Crown may publish decrees having the force of law. The prefects, assisted by the provincial councils, are the highest representatives of the executive power in the provinces. They may issue orders, which must not, however, exceed the scope of the national laws. The powers of sub-prefects are purely administrative. In the communes, the executive power is represented by the mayors, whose orders have the force of law.

Finally, the Health Care organizations in Bulgaria are established with a decree 2 from 7 February 1929 and published in the supplement of the "State Paper", vol. 277 from 9 March 1929; revised with additions according the law, published in the "State Paper", vols. 68/1933 and 76, 178, 223/1935 and 129/1940. Here is an example of the structure of health organization in Bulgaria.



Copyright 2002.