A TEXTBOOK OF EPIDEMIOLOGY
Author: Dimitar Bratovanov
In our country, where, epidemiology stems rather late as an academic discipline - Dr. I. Golosmanov /1873-1941/ gives a definition in his "Principles of Epidemiology" /1939/, as follows:
"Firstly, epidemiology was interpreted as the science for epidemics. Next, while developing the knowledge for etiology of diseases, and, their forms and ways of transmission - then, the aims of epidemiology to clarify some taints of diseases and their factors of distribution, or, such factors from biologic and social character. This is epidemiology - for radical fight with disease"
As good as it is, this definition reflects two things, namely: 1. The principle separation of epidemiology as a definite science, and, away from other allied sciences like microbiology, infectious diseases with clinic, etc; 2. The principle air of confrontation, i.e. having in mind, that, it reflects the Cold War era of the 50s in the 20th century. I want to, further, give some viewpoints of the author in the evolving text - mainly, in the form of inferences and conclusions:
Etimolological inference - the term "epidemiology" has come to displace an old term "louimollogy", which, earlier meant the study of plague diseases - cf. epidemiology history. Etimologicaly, it follows as a compound from greek words epidemia /occurrence of disease/, and, logos /science, branch of scholarship/.
Observational inference - epidemiology seeks the objective laws of advent-development-extinct in disease process, as given: sporademia, epidemia, pandemia.
Analytical inference - the growth of epidemiology as a "science", which, study the principles of epidemiologic case vs. territory occurrence; all-in-all, it contains the rationale for prophylactics and prevention of disease.
Marxist-Leninist inference - 1. as a dialectic category, epidemiology reflects the forms for movement of matter; 2. as a universal classificator, epidemiology study the human population with the changes it undergo; 3. as a system whole, epidemiology is the totality of an ideology with an aim to transform "science" and "art" into a socialist /N.B. editor note, understand here a "society belonging to the individual, and, not vice versa"/ reality.
Next, come the conclusions given in Table 1:
1. First conclusion - being a theoretical discipline, which, is a summation of human experience - and on the other hand - a practical science, which, is in a continuous trial and giving the rationale for further development of theory, i.e. apparently, epidemiology is a closed loop.
2. Second conclusion - the term "disease occurrence" reflects a duality of meaning, and, needs some explanation, viz. - i. that is a dynamic concept or "incidence", with, rates of occurrence as follows: a. intensive rates or all new cases within a domain of a territory; b. extensive rates or all new territories within a catchment of a case. - ii. that is a static concept or "prevalence", with, occurrence ratios as follows: c. ratios having a spatial, extensive meaning; d. ratios having a temporal, intensive meaning.
3. Third conclusion - as a preventive strategy, epidemiology have to study a score of phenomenon, but, in a unity they consist: epidemiologic etiognosis or the knowledge and experience to think as an epidemiologist - i.e., from ancient times as a locator of an infectio being waterbound-alimentary-aerial-lifestyle, but, on a later stage becoming more complex; epidemiologic diagnosis or the factual burden of disease - i.e., as a convention born in the clinic, but, in modern times susceptible to a different degree and level on immunity, per se; epidemiologic prognosis or the kernel of medical/health sciences - i.e. being an object of frustration for mankind during its existence on earth, but, same mankind hopes with projects on the future, cf. BASE, SETI, etc.
4. Forth conclusion - the importance of epidemiology in health care field, unequivocally, standing as landmark for economics and policy decision-making, fl. some 20 000 000 dead in the influenza epidemic during 1918-1919 years.
Part one - Theoretical Epidemiology
Chapter I - Objectives and methods of epidemiology
Chapter II - Origin and development of epidemiologic occurrence
Chapter III - Epidemiology as a philosophical doctrine
Chapter IV - Principles of infectious disease from epidemiologic standpoint
Chapter V - Sources of infectio
Chapter VI - Courses of distribution for infectious agents
Chapter VII - Mechanisms of distribution for infectious agents
Chapter VIII - Types of epidemics
Chapter IX - Cyclical patterns of epidemics
Chapter X - Susceptibility
Chapter XI - History of epidemiology as a subjective dialectical category
Part two - Applied Epidemiology
Chapter XII - Combating epidemiologic disease. Socialist state system as a prerequisite for disease prophylactics and prevention
Chapter XIII - Epidemiological investigation
Chapter XIV - Organization and control of anti-epidemiologic work
Chapter XV - Hygiene and sanitary measures
Chapter XVI - Immunization calendar
Chapter XVII - Desinfection
Chapter XVIII - Desinsection
Chapter XIX - Deratization
Chapter XX - Quarantines as a remedy against disease. International cooperation and national security for the citizens of our country